Sabtu, 14 Mei 2011


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Broadly speaking preservation can be divided into 3 groups, namely:

1) a natural way

2) How biological

3) How chemical

1) Preservation NATURALLY

Natural preservation process involves heating and cooling.

2) Preservation IN BIOLOGICAL

Preservation of biological processes such as by fermentation (fermentation).

Fermentation (Fermentation)

It is a process of change carbohydrates into alcohol. Substances that are working on this process is an enzyme produced by yeast cells. The duration of fermentation process depends on the material to be diragikan.


The enzyme is a biological catalyst produced by living cells and can help accelerate a variety of biochemical reactions. Enzymes contained in food may come from raw materials or microorganisms present in food. Foodstuffs such as meat, fish, milk, fruits and grains contain certain enzymes normally participate actively working within the material. Enzymes can cause changes in food. Changes that can be profitable this can be developed as much as possible, but the disadvantage to be prevented. Changes that occur can be flavors, colors, shapes, calories, and other properties. Several enzymes that are important in meat processing is bromelin from pineapple and papain from papaya fruit or sap.

Enzyme Bromalin

Derived from pineapple fruit, used to mengempukkan meat. Its activity is influenced by the ripeness of fruit, concentration of use, and time of use. To obtain maximum results should be used in young fruit. More and more pineapple is used, the faster the process works.

Papain Enzyme

The form of papaya latex, tapped from the fruit of 2.5 ~ 3 months old. Can be used for mengepukan meat, purifier material on beer beverage industry, textile industry, leather tanning industry, pharmaceutical industry and the appliance-alatkecantikan (cosmetics) and others. The enzyme papain is commonly traded in the form of yellowish white powder, refined, and their water content 8%. This enzyme should be kept below the temperature of 60o C. On one (1) papaya fruit can be done 5 times leads. Each tap produces + 20 grams of resin. The sap can be taken every 4 days by scraping it with a fruit knife.

3) Preservation BY CHEMICAL

Using chemicals, such as sugar, salt, nitrate, nitrite, sodium benzoate, propionic acid, citric acid, sulfate salts, and others. The process also includes how chemical fumigation causes chemicals in the smoke is inserted into the preserved food. If the exact amount pemakainannya, preservation with chemicals in food is very practical because it can inhibit the breeding of microorganisms such as fungi or mold, bacteria, and yeast.

a) Propionic acid (sodium propionate or calcium propionate)

Often used to prevent the growth of fungus or mold. For the material of wheat flour, the maximum dose used was 0.32% or 3.2 grams / kg of material; sedngkan to material from the cheese, the maximum dose of 0.3% or 3 g / kg of material.

b) Citric Acid (citric acid)

Is an intermediate compound of organic acid in the form of crystals or a white powder. Citric acid is soluble in water maudah, spriritus, and ethanol, no smell, taste very sour, and when heated will melt and then decompose further until it becomes charcoal burning. Citric acid is also found in fruit juices such as pineapple, orange, lemon, passion fruit. These acids are used to enhance the flavor of sour (acidity level set) at various processing drink, milk products, jams, jellies, and others. Citric acid serves as a preservative in cheese and syrup, is used to prevent crystallization process in honey, sugars (including fondant), and also to prevent discoloration of foods, such as canned fruits and fish. A dilute solution of citric acid can be used to prevent the formation of black spots on shrimp. Use in drinks is the maximum amount of 3 grams / liter of juice.

c) Benzoate (acidum benzoicum or flores benzoes or benzoic acid)

Commonly traded benzoate benzoate is the sodium salt, with ciriciri shaped white powder or crystal, fine, a little smelly, brackish taste, and at high heating will melt and then burn

d) bleng

Is a phosphate salt solution, crystal-shaped, and yellowish. Bleng contains boron and some other minerals. Addition bleng than as a preservative in food processing, especially crackers, as well as to develop and be rubbery material, and gives a distinctive aroma and flavor. Its use as a preservative maximum of 20 grams per 25 kg of material. Bleng can be mixed directly in the dough after dissolved in water or deposited first and then the liquid is mixed into the dough.

e) kitchen salt (sodium chloride)

Kitchen salt in a pure state is colorless, but sometimes brownish yellow derived from impurities contained. Sea water contains salt + 3%. Table salt as a barrier to microbial growth, are often used to preserve fish and other ingredients. Its use as a preservative at least as much as 20% or 2 oz / kg of material.

f) sulfate salts

Used in foods to prevent yeast, bacteria and brownish color during cooking.

g) sugar

Used as a preservative and is more effective when used with the aim of inhibiting bacterial growth. As a preservative, the use of white sugar at least 3% or 30 grams / kg of material.

h) chlorine (Calcium hypochlorit or hypochloris calsiucus or chlorine calc

or chlorinated lime)

Is a mixture of calcium hypochlorit, da-chloride-oxide, a white powder that is often agglomerate to form granules. Usually contains 25 ~ 70% active chlorine and the smell is very distinctive. Chlorine-containing chlorine is used to sterilize drinking water and swimming pool, and wash the fish.

i) Sodium metabisulphite

Sodium metabisulphite traded shaped crystals. Its use in food processing aims to prevent the browning of the fruit before it is processed, eliminating odor and bitter taste, especially in cassava and to defend the colors to remain attractive. Sodium metabisulphite can be dissolved together material or smoked. The principle of fumigation is SO2 gas flow into the material before drying. Fumigation done for + 15 minutes. Maximum use as much as 2 grams / kg of material. Excessive sodium metabisulphite will be lost during drying.

j) Nitrite and Nitrate

Contained in the form of potassium salt and sodium nitrite. Sodium nitrite is white grain, while potassium nitrite, white or yellow and high solubility in water. Nitrite and nitrate can inhibit growth of bacteria on meat and fish in a short time. Often used in danging which has dilayukan to maintain the red color of meat. The amount of added nitrite is usually 0.1% or 1 g / kg of the material preserved. For nitrate 0.2% or 2 grams / kg of material. If more than this amount will cause toxicity, and therefore the use of nitrite and nitrate regulated by law. To overcome the use of nitrite poisoning is usually mixed with nitrate in

the same amount. Nitrate is changed to nitrite little by little so that the amount of nitrite in meat are not excessive.

k) burp

Is an organic compound in the form of white crystals or colorless, taste salty and cool. Saltpeter dalamair soluble and melt at a temperature of 377oC. There are three forms of saltpeter, which is potassium nitrate, calcium nitrate and sodium nitrate. Saltpeter can be prepared by reacting potassium chloride with nitric acid or sodium nitrate. Dalamindustri used to make matches, explosives, fertilizers, and also for food preservatives. Its use is a maximum of 0.1% or 1 g / kg of material.

l) Substance Dyes

Dye added to foods such as meat, vegetables, fruits and others to attract consumers' tastes dankeinginan. Natural dye that is often used is turmeric, caramel and pandanus. Compared with natural dyes, then the synthetic dyes have many advantages in terms of diversity of color, good uniformity and stability, and storage easier and more durable. For example, carbon black is often used to give a black color, titanium oxide to whiten, and deodorized. Natural dye color is rarely appropriate with a chill.


There are two ways of germ-free process, namely sterilization and pasteurization


Is the process free of germs, viruses, spores and fungi. This sterile state can be achieved by natural or chemical.

Naturally can be done by:

- Heating equipment in boiling water at a temperature of 100oC for 15 minutes, to kill germs and viruses;

- Heating equipment in boiling water at a temperature of 120 oC for 15 minutes to kill spores and fungi.

The chemical can be performed using an antiseptic and disinfectant.

a. Antiseptic

Is a substance that can inhibit or kill the growth of microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi and other living tissue. There are several ingredients that are often used as an antiseptic, among others:

1. Alcohol, effectively used with concentrations of 50 ~ 70%; to break down the proteins that exist in the germ of disease which stunted its growth.

2. Acid and alkali, its use is similar to alcohol.

3. Mercury (hidrargirum = Hg), arsenic (As) and Argentum (Ag), which works through an enzyme system in germs.

4. Pengoksida, also worked on germ enzyme system. Consisting of iodine for skin disinfection and chlorine for disinfecting drinking water.

5. Dyes, especially analin and akridin used to color the germs so easy to find where the tissue of the germs that will be inhibited growth.

6. Pengalkil, which is used for the bacteria break down proteins so that its activity is hampered. An example is formaldehyde.

b. Disinfectant

Is a chemical used untukmencegah occurrence of infection or contamination of microorganisms such as bacteria and viruses, as well as to kill the germs of other diseases. Type commonly used disinfectant is chlorine or formaldehyde. This type is more effective when mixed with water, especially dalampembuatan ice. To maintain the quality of fish use of chlorine as much as 0.05% or 0.5 grams / liter of water is very effective


Performed by heating the container of food or beverages in boiling water at a temperature of at least 63 º C for 30 minutes, then immediately removed and cooled to a maximum temperature of 10 º C. In this way the growth of bacteria can be inhibited by quickly without affecting the taste of food and beverages.


1) Department of Education and Culture, The Big Indonesian Dictionary. Jakarta: Balai Pustaka, 1988

2) Encyclopedia of Indonesia. New York: New Ichtisar-Van Hoeve, 1984

3) Indonesia National Encyclopedia. Jakarta: PT. Cipta Adi Pustaka, 1990

4) General Encyclopedia. Jakarta: Yayasan Canisius. 1977

5) Hudaya, S. Food Additives. London: Faculty of Agriculture - University of Padjadjaran, 1978

6) Indrawati, T. et al. Making soy sauce rice field snails using bromelin enzyme. Jakarta: Balai Pustaka, 1983

7) Winarno, F.G.; S. Fardiaz; A. Rahman. The development of food technology Science. Bogor: Mechanisms and Technology Faculty of Agriculture - Bogor Agricultural University, 1974


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